Why SIAC

6 - 7 November 2017
SIAC Academy


The inaugural SIAC Academy, titled “Time and Cost Savers at SIAC: Emergency Arbitration, Expedited Procedure and Early Dismissal”, was held in Singapore on 6 and 7 November 2017, to provide practical, “hands-on” training for arbitration practitioners and arbitrators.

Mr Gary Born, President of the SIAC Court of Arbitration, chaired the teaching faculty which included Mr Chan Leng Sun, SC, Deputy Chairman of SIAC, members of the SIAC Court of Arbitration (Mr Toby Landau QC, Professor Lawrence Boo, Mr Alan Thambiayah) and other international arbitration luminaries. Ms Indranee Rajah, SC, Senior Minister of State for the Ministry of Law and Ministry of Finance, made a special appearance in a frank, highly interesting and lively discussion with Mr Born on developments in international arbitration in Singapore and in the region. SIAC Court members, Professor Lucy Reed and Mr Toby Landau QC also spoke as panellists in an engaging lunchtime fireside chat.

The Academy attracted a good turnout from both Singapore as well as overseas delegates from Bulgaria, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the United Kingdom and Vietnam.

The various reports on the SIAC Academy can be assessed here.

Backed by popular demand, the SIAC Academy 2018 will be held in Seoul (15 to 16 June 2018), Tokyo (7 to 8 September 2018) and Mumbai (6 to 7 October 2018). Please mark your calendars.

22 March 2018
Authors rate SIAC as Most Cost-Competitive and Efficient International Arbitral Institution

In a recent article by CMS Holborn Asia and the Society of International Law (Singapore), titled “Costs and Duration: A Comparison of the HKIAC, LCIA, SCC and SIAC Studies”, the authors concluded that “SIAC remains the most cost-competitive option for both sole-arbitrator and three-arbitrator cases” and that “for three-arbitrator cases in particular, SIAC remains significantly cheaper than LCIA and SCC where the costs extend to six-digit figures”. According to the article, SIAC arbitrations are “the most efficient in comparison to the other arbitral institutions”.

The authors said that they compared the latest figures released by HKIAC, LCIA, SCC and SIAC in their respective costs and duration studies. They presented the following conclusions:

"SIAC remains the most cost-competitive option for both sole-arbitrator and three-arbitrator cases. For three-arbitrator cases in particular, SIAC remains significantly cheaper than LCIA and SCC where the costs extend to six-digit figures.”

Table 1: Median Arbitration Costs for Sole and Three Arbitrator Cases
Arbitral Institution Median Arbitration
Costs for All Cases
Median Arbitration Costs
for Sole-Arbitrator Cases
Median Arbitration Costs
for Three-Arbitrator Cases
HKIAC USD 62,537 - -
LCIA USD 97,000 USD 60,000 USD 200,000
SCC - USD 36,037
(EUR 33,096)
USD 181,864
(EUR 167,021)
SIAC USD 29,567 USD 27,941 USD 80,230
 
“SIAC arbitrations are the most efficient in comparison to the other arbitral institutions. The median duration of an SIAC arbitration is the shortest at 11.7 months.”

Table 2: Mean and Median Duration
Arbitral Institution Mean Duration (months) Median Duration (months)
HKIAC 16.2 14.3
LCIA - 16
SCC 16.2 13.5
SIAC 13.8 11.7

The article added that “based on a comparison of the four studies, the costs and duration of arbitral proceedings are ostensibly most attractive when administered by SIAC”.

A copy of the article may be accessed here.

Further details on SIAC’s Costs and Duration Study may be found here.


For more information, please contact:

Singapore International Arbitration Centre
T: +65 6713 9777
E: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
W: www.siac.org.sg

7 March 2018
SIAC Announces New Records for 2017

The Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC) is pleased to announce the official release of its 2017 Annual Report.

2017 saw SIAC set a new record for the highest number of new case filings and administered cases. SIAC’s caseload continues to grow year on year, and has increased by more than 5 times in the last decade.

In 2017, SIAC received 452 new cases from parties in 58 countries in 6 continents. This was a 32% increase from the 343 cases filed in 2016 and a 67% increase from the 271 cases filed in 2015.

SIAC administered 93% or 421 of the cases filed in 2017. The aggregate sum in dispute for all new case filings amounted to USD4.07 billion (SGD5.44 billion).

Whilst India and China remained significant contributors to SIAC’s caseload, SIAC’s top ten foreign user rankings also saw new entrants from Europe and the Middle East, underscoring SIAC’s global appeal to users from diverse legal systems and cultures.

Further details of SIAC’s case numbers are available in the 2017 Annual Report.

Mr Gary Born, President of the Court of Arbitration of SIAC, said, “SIAC has seen significant increases in its caseload each year and more parties from a growing number of jurisdictions, which is a testament both to user confidence as well as SIAC’s international reach and standing as a premier global arbitral institution.”

Mr Davinder Singh, SC, Chairman of SIAC, commented, “SIAC is where it is today because of Singapore’s reputation for integrity and the rule of law, its status as a trusted and sophisticated hub and the Singapore Courts’ support for and active contribution to the development of the law and practice of international arbitration. I would like to thank the SIAC Court of Arbitration, the Board of Directors and the excellent management and staff of SIAC for their invaluable contributions and relentless pursuit of SIAC’s goals.”

Ms Lim Seok Hui, CEO of SIAC, said, “We are delighted to have recorded another milestone achievement. This will keep us firmly motivated to do better. My team and I would like to thank our partners and friends in the local and international legal and business communities for their continued faith in SIAC.”


For more information, please contact:

Singapore International Arbitration Centre
T: +65 6713 9777
E: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
W: www.siac.org.sg

7 November 2017
SIAC-CIL Academic-Practitioner Colloquium


By Daniel Ow, Associate, WongPartnership LLP

The inaugural SIAC-CIL Academic-Practitioner Colloquium on 7 November 2017 was significant as it marked an important development in the Singapore arbitration arena. Essentially, the event provided academics with a platform to showcase their current research work in the field of international arbitration, and to test their ideas on a panel of arbitration practitioners and fellow academics. In turn, the event provided practitioners with an opportunity to interact with academics researching on issues that might have relevance to their areas of practice. The event was well attended, and attracted an audience of 100 attendees, comprising corporate counsel, practising lawyers and academics.

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Left to Right: Professor Lucy Reed, Toby Landau QC
and Lim Seok Hui

Opening Address delivered by Toby Landau QC

Mr Toby Landau QC (Member, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Barrister and Arbitrator, Essex Court Chambers) kicked off the event with opening remarks explaining the format and purpose of the seminar. This was then followed by the paper presentations by the two academics and panel discussions.

The two researchers who presented at the inaugural event provided an insightful discussion on the integration of a two-tier court system into new trade agreements, and also shed light on how a witness’ memory might be distorted and the impact of this on witness testimony in international arbitration. The panel sessions comprising seasoned arbitration practitioners also provided participants with candid, and at times, critical insight into the realities of international arbitration practice.

Paper Presentation 1: The New EU-Led Approach to Investor-State Arbitration: The Investment Tribunal System in the Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) and the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement

Ms Elsa Sardinha (Research Associate & Practice Fellow to Chris Thomas QC, Investment Law & Policy Group, Centre for International Law (Singapore); National University of Singapore) presented the first paper. The first panel session was moderated by Professor Nicolas Jansen Calamita (Head, Investment Treaty Law & Policy, Principal Research Fellow; Research Associate Professor, Centre for International Law (Singapore); National University of Singapore), and comprised Mr Gary Born (President, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Chair, International Arbitration Practice Group, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP), Ms Koh Swee Yen (Co-Chair, YSIAC Committee; Partner, WongPartnership LLP) and Professor Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah (C J Koh Professor, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore).

Since 2004, treaties have become more complex and more precisely drafted to provide a richer context for interpretation. Two new treaties that were recently introduced – the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) and the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EU-Vietnam FTA) – were reflective of this shift in treaty-drafting practice. Both treaties established a two-tier investment tribunal system (ITS), where a permanent appellate tribunal has the power to review tribunal decisions. The ITS provides for a spectrum of possible challenges to arbitral awards by incorporating the grounds for annulment in Article 52 of the ICSID Arbitration Rules into both treaties, together with the power to review for errors of law and fact. Further, the CETA has a 24-month deadline for the final award to be rendered whereas the EU-Vietnam FTA has an 18-month deadline for the final award to be rendered.

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Elsa Sardinha

Left to Right: Elsa Sardinha, Professor Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah, Professor Nicolas Jansen Calamita, Koh Swee Yen and Gary Born

Elsa analysed the ITS under these two treaties, and argued that the treaties contained some potentially problematic features, such as the removal of the involvement of disputing parties in the selection of the tribunal members and the extremely tight deadlines to render final awards. In particular, considering the number of rounds of pleadings and the time that the tribunal would require to digest submissions in order to reach its decision, she suggested that the short deadline was unrealistic.

While the creation of the ITS aimed to solve the problem of the lack of independence and impartiality of some arbitrators, the panellists questioned whether this problem was in reality so prevalent in practice that it warranted such a drastic change. The panellists also pointed out other problems with the ITS, such as the limited term of tribunal members and the potential effect of the lack of tenure on tribunal members’ decision-making, and the disadvantages which might be faced by States with less bargaining power. Whilst there may be some potential benefits of implementing such a tribunal system, the panellists did acknowledge that such a radical change should be cautiously proceeded with.

Paper Presentation 2: Human Memory and Witness Evidence in International Arbitration

Dr Ula Cartwright-Finch (Managing Associate, Linklaters LLP, London) presented the second paper on “Human Memory and Witness Evidence in International Arbitration”. The second panel session was moderated by Mr Chelva Rajah, SC (Member, SIAC Board of Directors; Managing Partner, Tan Rajah & Cheah), and comprised Mr Toby Landau QC, Professor Lucy Reed (Member, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Director, Centre for International Law (Singapore); Professor, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore) and Mr Alan Thambiayah (Member, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Professional Arbitrator, The Arbitration Chambers).

The accuracy of a witness’ memory is crucial to the various stages of an international arbitration, from the initial investigation, to the focused investigation, the preparation of witness statement and the hearing.

However, the ability of witnesses accurately to recollect events from the past and provide reliable testimony has always been a controversial issue in international arbitration. Drawing on research in psychology and neuroscience, Ula suggested that the human memory undergoes a continuous reconstructive process that is susceptible to distortion.

In her presentation, Ula discussed 3 instances in which a witness’ memory might be distorted and how these effects might arise in the context of witness testimony in international arbitration.

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Ula Cartwright-Finch

Left to Right: Ula Cartwright-Finch, Toby Landau QC, Chelva Rajah, SC, Professor Lucy Reed and Alan Thambiayah

Firstly, the misinformation effect, whereby a witness’ recollection of episodic memories could become less accurate due to post-event information such as the way that a question was posed during the cross-examination. In a 1975 research by Loftus & Zanni, after a video was shown to participants, they were split into two focus groups. The first group was asked whether they had seen a broken headlight, whereas the second group was asked whether they had seen the broken headlight. It was shown that participants in the second group were more likely to report having seen a broken headlight.

Secondly, a witness might be susceptible to false memories, whereby his or her recollection of events might be affected by his or her personal belief or opinion. This was exemplified by the “lost in the mall” scenario, whereby confabulations about events that never took place – such as having been lost in a shopping mall as a child – could be created through suggestions made to participants.

Lastly, a witness’ memory might be conformed and compromised when another person’s recollection of a memory influences his or her recollection of the same experience.

Distortions of witness’ memories may have severe consequences by impacting the witness’ testimonies and consequently the findings of fact in an award. Therefore, in her paper, Ula proposed some practical strategies to mitigate the potential impact of these effects on memory, such as carrying out timely witness interviews and taking special precautions in framing the questions during the interviews.

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Members of the audience

Members of the audience during networking drinks

The panellists noted that the problems with witness recollection would extend to the cross-examination and re-examination stages of the arbitration as well. The panellists also observed that the research conducted on witness recollection have thus far been carried out in relatively controlled scenarios, and hence might not accurately reflect or be directly applicable to international arbitration processes. There was nonetheless consensus in the room that these witness recollection issues highlighted the importance of arbitration tribunals in the assessment of witness testimonies.

13 October 2017
YSIAC Oral Advocacy Workshop 2017


By Vibhor Jain, Associate, Luthra & Luthra Law Offices

On the evening of Friday, 13 October 2017, a room full of arbitration luminaries and enthusiasts engaged in an open dialogue on the “art” of oral advocacy and conducted a mock application for emergency interim relief.

The Emergency Arbitrators for the mock scenario comprised Mr Gary Born (President, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Chair, International Arbitration Practice Group, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP), Mr Toby Landau QC (Member, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Barrister and Arbitrator, Essex Court Chambers), Mr Ciccu Mukhopadhaya, SC (Supreme Court of India), and Mr Harish Salve, SC (Member, SIAC Court of Arbitration; Blackstone Chambers).

Mr Kevin Nash (Deputy Registrar & Centre Director, SIAC) kicked off the workshop charting how SIAC had become a major player among international arbitral institutions, and one of the preferred arbitral institutions amongst Indian parties. This was followed by a brief introduction to the mock case scenario by Mr Rishab Gupta (Member, YSIAC Committee; Partner, Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co). Thereafter, the ball started rolling and the Preliminary Objections Session began.

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Left to Right: Gary Born, Toby Landau QC and Ciccu Mukhopadhaya, SC

Members of the audience

The first three sets of counsel dealt with three jurisdictional objections raised in the mock case scenario: (i) whether, by the reference to “Singapore Chamber of Commerce”, a non-existent entity, the parties had intended to choose SIAC as the administering institution for arbitration; (ii) whether mediation talks between the parties were a pre-condition to arbitration and had been satisfied; and (iii) who were the proper parties to the arbitration.

On the first jurisdictional objection, counsel for the Claimant, Mr Sonal Kumar Singh (Partner, M/s A. K. Singh & Co.), stressed how certain arbitral institutions had become synonymous with geographical areas, and that the reference to “Singapore” must signify SIAC. On this point, Mr Landau QC was quick to point out that by the same token, the words “Chamber of Commerce” could signify the parties’ intent to choose the ICC. Counsel for the Respondent, Mr Moazzam Khan (Member, YSIAC Committee; Co-Head, International Disputes Practice, Nishith Desai Associates), argued that it was not possible to infer from the clause any intention as to “which institution” and “where”, and was only possible to infer that there was an intention to arbitrate.

On the second jurisdictional objection, Mr Prateek Bagaria (Partner, Singularity Legal), argued that the arbitration clause would only “mature” upon the activation of the temporal jurisdiction of the tribunal after the stipulated time period for mediation talks had expired. This led Mr Born to wonder aloud, “Are arbitration clauses teenagers that they would ‘mature’?”, which led to much laughter from the audience, including Mr Bagaria. Next, counsel for the Claimant, Mr Anirban Bhattacharya (Partner, Luthra & Luthra Law Offices) submitted that the agreement to mediate, being an agreement to agree, was not enforceable under the governing law, which in his submission was Indian law. Mr Landau QC inquired whether it was artificial to submit that the “agreement to mediate” was illegal, and separate it from the “agreement to arbitrate”, when both the arbitration and mediation clauses were subordinate clauses of the same clause in the agreement. Mr Bhattacharya responded that while both subordinate clauses were related, only the latter was an arbitration agreement, and hence, different laws would in his opinion apply to both.

On the third jurisdictional objection, submissions were made for the Respondent by Mr Lomesh Kiran Nidumuri (Partner, IndusLaw) and for the Claimant by Ms Sheila Ahuja (Of Counsel, Allen & Overy). The discussion between the counsel and the arbitrators revolved around exceptions to the rule of privity of contract, and how, given that the emergency arbitration mechanism was a provisional measure, the emergency arbitrator (EA) was only required to take a prima facie view on proper parties.

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Left to Right: Moazzam Khan, Prateek Bagaria and Lomesh Kiran Nidumuri Left to Right: Sonal Kumar Singh, Anirban Bhattacharya and Sheila Ahuja

After a short break, the Workshop proceeded to the fourth session, with counsel making submissions on the applicable test for interim relief. Ms Elodie Dulac (Partner, King & Spalding), who acted as counsel for the Claimant, submitted that the essential conditions were fulfilled: there being presence of risk, causation of irreparable harm, and a prima facie case on the merits. She also submitted that the test of urgency was also satisfied, namely “whether harm could happen before an award was passed on the merits”. However, Mr Born was of the view that such tests would make the threshold for the grant of interim relief too low. Acting for the Respondent, Mr Promod Nair (Founding Partner, Arista Chambers) submitted that the three jurisdictional objections submitted previously showed the absence of a prima facie case, and that the EA ought to pass an order that was “necessary”, not “appropriate”, thereby signifying a higher threshold for grant of interim relief.

The fifth session pertained to whether or not emergency interim relief should be granted by the EA. Mr P.V. Kapur, SC, argued for interim relief to be granted since there were risks involved as one of the Respondents did not own any known assets. Acting for the Respondent was Mr Landau QC (who had switched from being an EA to counsel), who submitted that there was no prima facie case on the merits, to which Mr Salve, SC, intervened and asked how the EA could possibly decide at the present stage that there was no prima facie case on the merits from the Claimant’s side. Mr Landau QC responded by saying the burden to prove the same, as well as the burden to prove that the Respondent was ill-intentioned and there was a risk involved if the relief was not granted, lay solely with the Claimant.

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Left to Right: P.V. Kapur, SC and Elodie Dulac Application for Emergency Relief Session

With that, the mock arbitration hearing concluded. In short, these five sessions were thoroughly enlightening. What followed was even more exciting: the feedback by the Tribunal, moderated by Mr Kabir Singh (Member, YSIAC Committee; Partner, Clifford Chance). Mr Born was extremely impressed by the performance of the various counsel under fire from what he admitted was “not an easy tribunal”. Mr Landau QC, with a good sense of humour, chimed in with a remark that given the time allotted and the complexity of the problem, “everyone was brilliant, except counsel for the Respondent in the last session (himself)”!

The panellists then discussed the challenges affecting the growth of arbitration globally. Mr Landau QC and Mr Salve, SC emphasised the need to “unlearn”, noting that there needed to be more attempts to make a departure from “litigation advocacy” towards “arbitral advocacy”.

Talking further about such a transition, especially for young professionals, Mr Mukhopadhaya, SC, and Mr Born said that young professionals should enter into the world of arbitration from the very beginning, but never leave courtroom lawyering behind.

“Litigation and arbitration have as many similarities as dissimilarities”, Mr Born added. Mr Salve, SC spoke about how to “read” a tribunal, by trying to sell it an idea and understand their thought process. Mr Landau QC emphasised that the audience was neither the opponent, nor the client, but the tribunal. Mr P.V. Kapur, SC, spoke about the need for more cross-examination experience for young professionals, with Mr Salve, SC, noting that no case should be too small and every opportunity should be seized by young professionals.

On language barriers in arbitrations, Live Note service providers and transcriptions were recommended as the expensive and cheap options respectively. The panellists were also asked to recount their “best as well as worst experience professionally” to much interest and laughter.

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Left to Right: Gary Born, Harish Salve, SC, Kabir Singh, Toby Landau QC, P.V. Kapur, SC and Ciccu Mukhopadhaya, SC

Toby Landau QC and Rajiv K. Luthra with members of the audience

In the Closing Remarks, Mr Nish Shetty (Partner, Clifford Chance) applauded SIAC for organising the workshop which offered invaluable insights into the practice of arbitration through the mock arbitration. He also mentioned that the growing practice of arbitration in India will lead to the emergence of an “arbitration bar” and that such events were contributing to the same. He expressed hope that arbitration would go from being an “extra-curricular” to a full-time career. He expressed gratitude to the counsel and members of the EA Tribunal for taking time from their busy schedules for what was, indeed, a unique night of learning.

(The YSIAC Oral Advocacy Workshop was well-received by the Indian legal and business community and attracted a total of 145 delegates, comprising practitioners, in-house counsel and academics.)

Press Releases

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Public Consultation on Draft SIAC Investment Arbitration Rules

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Public Consultation on Draft SIAC Arbitration Rules

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